Worlds economies show similarities in economic inequality

first_img The value of vegetation Scientists Arnab Chatterjee and Bikas Chakrabarti from the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, along with Sitabhra Sinha of the Institute of Mathematical Sciences, both in India, have analyzed a variety models explaining different sets of data, and found striking similarities. The results show that the poorer majority of the population follows one distribution, while a small proportion of the wealthiest people veers off in a tail following a power-law distribution, in essence reflecting how “the rich get richer.” The studies included large sets of data from sources such as income tax returns and net values of assets in societies including Japan, the U.S., the UK, India, and nineteenth century Europe. The data, taken from a large number of recent publications by several groups, represented a variety of different economies and stages of development. Generally, the lower 90% of the population (in terms of income) followed a log-normal distribution, characterized by an initial rapid rise in population followed by a rapid fall as income increased. Economists who yearn for the redistribution of wealth in an ideal society are up against history. According to a recent study, the uneven distribution of wealth in a society appears to be a universal law that holds true for economies in many different societies, from ancient Egypt to modern Japan and the U.S. This distribution may reflect a simple natural law analogous to a 100-year-old theory describing the distribution of energy in a gas. However, the top 2-10% of the population deviated from this bulk distribution, as scientists discovered more very rich people than would be expected using the log-normal model. Instead, this top tier followed a power law with a certain exponent called the Pareto exponent, named after Vilfredo Pareto, who first observed this power law in the 1890s.“While the distribution of the richest 10% does indeed follow a different behavior (power law) than the rest (Gibbs or log-normal), one need not assume different dynamics at work in the two cases,” Chatterjee explained to PhysOrg.com. “In fact, both types of distributions can arise from the same model. In the case of the random savings model, the agents having the highest savings fractions will have a higher probability of ending up in the richest 10% of the population, while in the random thrift model, the agents with higher thrift value generally tend to be the richest.“As an agent gets richer, a feedback effect occurs by which the rich are more likely to gain from a transaction than the poorer agents—thereby resulting in an accumulation of assets for the richer players that is manifested as a power law tail.” When comparing these income and wealth distributions to a physical model called the Gibbs distribution, the scientists found that the economic model of the poorer 90% seemed to fit very well with this natural law. Proposed in the late 1800s, the Gibbs distribution is a thermodynamic model that describes the distribution of energy in an ideal gas in equilibrium.The economic model and the gas model share basic characteristics. As Chatterjee et al. explain, the asset- (e.g. money-) trading process can be viewed as a molecule scattering process—in both cases, assets or molecules are conserved (on the time scale of the model). Also, even though an individual does not see asset exchanges as random, the scientists show that, from a global level, exchanging assets or scattering molecules are indeed random processes.“As described in our paper, the Gibbs form seems to be a better fit for the data than the log-normal form (which is preferred by many economists),” Chatterjee explained. “Note, for a particular [savings factor], the resultant [distribution] only fits the lower 90% of the population. To fit the entire range, including the power law tail, one needs a suitably distributed saving propensity. In the thrift model, one obtains realistic values of the Pareto exponent (i.e., as seen in society) by assuming a distribution of the thrift parameter. Hence, both these models can explain both the features of the observed income distribution.”Aside from these general models, the scientists also discovered some interesting details within their results. When comparing wealth (i.e. one’s net worth) with income, they found that wealth is much more unequally distributed than income (wealth models always have lower Pareto exponents, for any society). Also, while most of the data for the models is based on individuals, data from companies also seemed to follow the same models. Even though the model shows a widespread inequality among citizens in a society, however, the scientists’ findings might also provide guidance for experts trying to distribute wealth more evenly.“With uniform savings and large saving propensity, our model would yield a narrow peaked income distribution, which corresponds to a socialist economy,” Chatterjee said. “Note that, here, the super-rich are absent, and the bulk of the population is described by a narrow most-probable income distribution, or everybody ending up with the average money in the market—a socialist’s ideal dream.”Since the richer agents demonstrate certain characteristics in savings and thrift, the scientists explain that certain characteristics might make citizens in a society “more” financially equal.“A way to exercise this would be to modify the saving patterns of the individuals, making all of them have a similar and large saving propensity, to be precise. In isolated sectors where such manipulations with savings propensities were possible, our predicted effects had indeed been seen earlier by social statisticians (such as J. Angle) and analysts (such as G. Willis and J. Mimkes).“In the thrift model,” Chatterjee continued, “introducing different distributions of thrift among the agents can result in more or less equitable distributions. Also, introducing certain forms of taxation in random asset exchange models have resulted in more equitable distributions. These could help experts make policies for a more equitable distribution of wealth in society.”Citation: Chatterjee, Arnab, Sinha, Sitabhra, and Chakrabarti, Bikas K. “Economic Inequality: Is it Natural?” Currently at arxiv.org/abs/physics/0703201 ; To be published in Current Science.Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: World’s economies show similarities in economic inequality (2007, April 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-04-world-economies-similarities-economic-inequality.html The graph at left shows how 90% of a population follows a log-normal wealth distribution, while the richest 10% veers off in a tail following a Pareto power law distribution. Examples of this model with data from different countries are shown at right. Credit: Chatterjee, et al.last_img read more

Face pass is latest security system for NEC laptops

first_img Citation: ‘Face pass’ is latest security system for NEC laptops (2007, September 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-09-latest-nec-laptops.html NEC´s LaVie series will offer “face pass” security. The LaVie C and LaVie L series will both include the new facial recognition software, which enables only a programmed user to log on to the computer.NEC’s software, called “NeoFace,” is a biometric system that uses a combination of eye zone extraction and facial recognition to identify the computer’s user. To program the system, a user sets up a profile with three photographs of their face. Then when a user tries to log on, an integrated 2.0 megapixel camera scans their facial characteristics.The NeoFace system then uses a matching procedure to determine the identity of the user. NEC says that the system performs accurate matching even when people wear glasses and hats, have different haircuts or facial hair, and show different facial expressions. The ability to distinguish between identical twins is still speculative.“NeoFace uses a technology called ‘adaptive region mixed matching,’ which focuses on ‘segment regions’ with a high degree of similarity for matching,” explained Atsushi Sato, a head researcher at NEC. “Other makers’ products make judgments based on a number of combined characteristics, such as the distance between the eyes and the nose, or the nose and the mouth. But this creates a problem, because if even one of these segments is missing, the accuracy drops dramatically. “In contrast, NeoFace divides the input image and the registered image into small segments, and focused only on the segments that are highly similar,” he continued. “This enables the system to achieve higher authentication accuracy than out competitors’ products, even if a part of the subject’s face is hidden, for example by a mask or sunglasses.”NEC originally developed NeoFace for security applications, such as border control, prison management and corporate security, to eliminate the need for fingerprints. In July 2007, NEC announced the first automated border control system to use facial recognition technology that can identify people inside their cars. At checkpoints on the Hong Kong-Shenzhen border, the system reads a car’s license plate, and compares the driver’s face with the registered driver’s micro-chipped ID.“The main advantage to face authentication is convenience,” said Kazuyori Miyaoka of NEC’s Business Promotion Department. “A number of other authentication methods are currently in the research stage, for example using the shape of the ears or the patterns of blood vessels on the back of the hand, as well as a person’s walk, smell, DNA or keystroke habits when using a PC keyboard.”As for the consumer laptops, both the LaVie C and LaVie L series are expected to be available in the Japanese market in late September. Besides the face pass system, the laptops will have mostly standard features: 15.4-inch displays, Core 2 Duo processors on the top-end LaVie C model or the option of either Core 2 Duo or Celeron processors on the LaVie L model. Blu-ray is also available for the high-end model. The price is expected to range from ¥150,000 to ¥310,000 (or about $1,300 to $2,675).Some of the above information was adapted from NEC. NEC has launched two new series of laptops with a unique security feature called “face pass” — or, in Japanese, “kao pass.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

EcoFriendly Surveillance NEC Develops Enhancement That Uses Fluorescent Light Tubes

first_imgNEC spy camera – Credit: NEC & Digital World Tokyo Minuscule microbes wield enormous power over the Great Lakes, but many species remain a mystery Citation: Eco-Friendly Surveillance: NEC Develops Enhancement That Uses Fluorescent Light Tubes (2007, December 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-12-eco-friendly-surveillance-nec-fluorescent-tubes.html NEC has developed a wireless security camera that utilizes energy from fluorescent light tubes. Workplace employee surveillance cameras can be neatly tucked away in the false ceilings along side the fluorescent tubes. The surveillance camera is tethered to the fluorescent light by a single wire with a ring-like adapter at one end. As reported by Digital World Tokyo, the camera is activated when the lights are turned on. The act of flipping the light switch activates the electricity generated by the Sharp-created technology located in the ring through electromagnetic induction. The magnetic field created by the AC source in the fluorescent light tubes is the energy source the technology development utilizes. The magnetic field frequency of 45 to 100 kHz can be used by the ring to generate enough electricity,(120 mW), to power up the camera. The camera is a standard-VGA resolution unit that takes pictures every ten seconds. The images are transferred to a PC utilizing an ordinary WiFi chip that draws power from the fluorescent light source. NEC is a leader in surveillance and security solutions for the 21st Century. NEC envisions the use of the energy saving technology will be useful for merchants in determining on-site marketing trends. Other uses include hotel surveillance for security purposes. In the work place, the unobtrusive surveillance system employs green technology and may entitle purchases to be offset by applicable rebates and credits. NEC is focused on promoting environmentally conscious technologies and enhancements for current devices. NEC is a member of the “Team Minus 6% Project,” whose mission it is to reduce energy consumption by six percent. NEC is currently involved in the development of solar power for PCs, recycling and the utilization of energy saving fluorescent light tubes as well as other alternative Eco-friendly energy sources. Copyright 2007 Mary Anne Simpson & Physorg.com. All rights reserved. Web Sites and Bloggers may provide the introductory paragraph and a link to the story, but may not copy, redistribute, rewrite or publish the story in whole or in part without written permission of the author or publisher. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further NEC has developed an Eco-Friendly adaptation that allows surveillance cameras to utilize energy from fluorescent light tubes. The surveillance system can be tucked into the false ceiling next to the fluorescent lights.last_img read more

Stay in touch with PhysOrg while on the go iPhone Apps Amazon

first_imgThe “Lite” and “Full” PhysOrg iPhone apps are available on the Apple App Store. For this reason, PhysOrg is introducing three new high-tech ways for readers to wirelessly stay in touch with the latest science breakthroughs while on the go. Now readers can read PhysOrg stories on the iPhone with new PhysOrg apps, listen to podcasts through iTunes on any MP3 player, and read stories on the Amazon Kindle. With 1.75 million readers every month, PhysOrg hopes to offer a mobile reading option for everyone. PhysOrg iPhone AppAlthough iPhones, PDAs, and other devices have always been able to access a mobile version of PhysOrg.com, the new iPhone app is designed to make it even easier for iPhone users to read the text on the small screen, as well as offer other features. The PhysOrg iPhone app comes in two versions: a “Lite” (free) version and a “Full” (paid) version, both of which are ad-free. The “Lite” version allows readers to browse the top 10 daily news stories on PhysOrg.com. Readers may rate, bookmark and share favorite stories via Twitter or email directly using the app. Readers can also read stories in offline or “airplane” mode.The “Full” version offers these features as well, but includes all PhysOrg stories in all categories. Readers may customize content by selecting their favorite categories, which include physics, technology, earth science, medicine, nanotechnology, electronics, space, biology and chemistry. Readers can download the “Lite” and “Full” PhysOrg apps from the Apple App store. For more information about the apps (including a video demonstration), visit www.physorg.com/help/iphone/ . (PhysOrg.com) — As our readers know, PhysOrg constantly strives to be on the cutting edge when it comes to the latest science and technology news. Most importantly, we want to get the news out to our readers as quickly as possible, even if they’re away from the computer. (c) 2010 PhysOrg.com PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Citation: Stay in touch with PhysOrg while on the go — iPhone Apps, Amazon Kindle, Podcasts (2010, March 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-03-iphone-apps-amazon-kindle.html Play Video: PhysOrg.com iPhone App Preview PhysOrg Text-to-Speech Audio PodcastsEvery day, about 40 of the top PhysOrg stories (called “Spotlight News”) are converted into text-to-speech (T2S) podcasts. You can listen to the podcasts online by clicking the speaker icon next to the story, manually download the podcasts into your MP3 player through an RSS feed, or subscribe to the podcasts via iTunes. The T2S conversion process is powered by AudioDizer, an MIT-student-founded company. AudioDizer takes the podcast experience to the next level by using multiple voices, different accents, and music to enhance the listening experience. For more information on PhysOrg podcasts, visit www.physorg.com/help/audio/ . PhysOrg on the KindleReaders can subscribe to PhysOrg stories through the Amazon Kindle e-reader through six feeds. The “Spotlight News” feed offers the top 40 or so stories of the day (the same stories that are converted to podcasts). Readers who are primarily interested in a specific subject can subscribe to one of five channel feeds, which provide all stories in that subject. The five channel feeds are Space and Earth, Technology and Electronics, Biology and Chemistry, Physics and Nanotechnology, and Medicine and Health. Already, PhysOrg has more than 350 Kindle subscribers, and the number is growing rapidly. For more information and to download PhysOrg feeds on the Kindle, visit www.physorg.com/help/physorg-kindle/ . Amazon routes Kindle books to BlackBerry smartphoneslast_img read more

Big cats love Calvin Klein cologne

first_img(PhysOrg.com) — Workers in Wildlife Conservation Societies around the world are using a new technique to lure big cats to their heat-and-motion-sensitive cameras and keep them there long enough to enable them to be identified. The new technique is to spray the area with cologne, but not just any fragrance – it has to be Calvin Klein’s “Obsession for Men”. Cheetah. Image: Wikimedia Commons. Big cats, wild pigs and short-eared dogs — oh, my! The idea began in the Bronx Zoo in 2003, when general curator Pat Thomas decided to test the effects of 24 fragrances on two cheetahs. The zoo had long sprayed perfumes on rocks in the cats’ enclosure to keep them curious, but Thomas decided to be a little more scientific and test individual scents. The results showed “Obsession for Men” was a clear winner, with the cats spending an average of 11.1 minutes in savoring the scent and obviously loving the musky perfume, rubbing their cheeks against trees that had been sprayed. Other scents did not perform so well for the cats, with Revlon’s “Charlie” occupying them for only 15.5 seconds, and Estée Lauder’s “Beautiful” keeping them interested for a mere two seconds.After Thomas’s trials, word spread through the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), and use of the cologne has spread from zoos to protected areas of jungle in wildlife conservation regions, where it is finding success in luring big cats of all kinds to cameras placed along remote animal trails. In Guatemala, for example, Roan Balas McNab uses the perfume in the Maya Biosphere Reserve, one of the largest protected regions in South America, to attract jaguars to the area around the cameras and keep them there long enough for the individuals to be identified by their unique patterns of spots. Since the cologne has been used the number of cats lingering in the vicinity of the cameras has increased threefold, and this will help the researchers to better estimate the size of the population of the reclusive cats. Researchers studying the cats have also been able to capture on video rarely seen events such as mating rituals near the cameras.Program coordinator of the Jaguar Conservation Program run by the WCS said they plan to expand the use Obsession for Men to its jaguar population studies next year in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Nicaragua, and Venezuela.Calvin Klein’s “Obsession for Men” was launched in 1986 and is still one of the top ten best-selling fragrances for men in the world. The “nose” who helped create the cologne, Ann Gottlieb, said there were a number of ingredients that might attract animals, such as synthetic animal “notes” like the musky scent secreted by the civet.Mr McNab initially hesitated to spread the word about the fragrance fearing poachers might use it, but he decided the benefits to science outweighed the risk since the fragrance is rare in stores near the rainforests and it is expensive, and poachers use dead animals as an effective bait to lure the cats. The WCS’s ethics do not permit researchers to use dead animals. Explore furthercenter_img © 2010 PhysOrg.com Citation: Big cats love Calvin Klein cologne (2010, June 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-big-cats-calvin-klein-cologne.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Through a Sensor Holographically

first_imgThis pixel superresolution approach effectively increases the sensor pixel density without physically adding additional pixels or sacrificing the imaging field of view (FOV). This is accomplished by capturing different images resulting from motion of either the illumination source or the sample and subsequently merging these lens-free frames to synthesize a higher spatial resolution holographic image. In microfluidic applications, for example, the fluidic motion of objects flowing by the sensor array can be used to generate high-resolution holograms. Ozcan acknowledges that a fundamental challenge to transmission optical microscopy in general (whether lens-based or lens-free) is photon scattering when imaging thick tissue samples. “However,” he adds, “I expect that this limitation can be partially released if the scattering properties of tissue were to be reduced through some sample preparation steps – at least for certain class of objects. There is some very promising work in the literature around this major issue and researchers are working hard with various innovative schemes toward this end.” Ozcan sees the primary applications of lens-free microscopy being in cell and developmental biology – especially in microfluidic integration. “Microfluidic integration would permit rather interesting lab-on-a-chip devices that could do optofluidic microscopy and tomography (also referred to as holographic optofluidic microscopy, or HOM) on the same chip. This way the compact and cost-effective platform of lab-on-a-chip devices could be coupled with high-resolution 3D micro-analysis tools on the same platform.”In fact, Ozcan has done previous work in lens-free opto-fluidic microscopy, last year publishing a paper with Dr. Waheb Bishara and Dr. Hongying Zhu entitled Holographic Opto-Fluidic Microscopy (Optics Express 18:27499–27510, 20 December 2010, Vol. 18, No. 26). In that paper, the authors note that their HOM platform does not involve complicated fabrication processes or precise alignment, nor does it require a highly uniform flow of objects within microfluidic channels. Relatively recently the Ozcan group has also demonstrated, for the first time, optofluidic tomography, soon to be published in Applied Physics Letters. Of great interest is that when asked if further miniaturization and integration – such as an on-chip partially-coherent light source – could potentially enable in vivo applications, Ozcan did not rule out the possibility. “Over the last decade microfluidics has created a versatile platform that has significantly advanced the ways in which microscale organisms and objects are controlled, processed and investigated, by improving the cost, compactness and throughput aspects of analysis. Microfluidics has also expanded into optics to create reconfigurable and flexible optical devices such as reconfigurable lenses, lasers, waveguides, switches, and on-chip microscopes.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — The power and resolution of lens-based optical microscopes have improved by orders of magnitude since their invention around 1595. Nevertheless, relying on a high-magnification lens for image clarity has limitations that become more relevant as larger and larger sample volumes need to be viewed. Moreover, achieving these advances in lens-based optical microscopy has increased their size and complexity. At the same time, microfluidic systems are becoming increasingly sophisticated while decreasing in size, creating a need for miniaturized optical microscopy that can be integrated onto a lab-on-a-chip to allow simultaneous analysis and imaging of small biological samples. (A1) A single, low-resolution (LR) hologram obtained by vertical illumination of 10μm beads in a chamber. (A2) Zoomed region from the LR hologram, showing the aliasing effect due to undersampling of high-frequency interference fringes. (B1) A digitally synthesized pixel superresolved (SR) hologram using multiple subpixel shifted LR holograms. (B2) Zoomed region from the SR hologram, showing the digitally recovered high-frequency fringes. The inset shows the profile along the dashed line on the SR hologram, where an interference fringe with 2.8μm period is recovered with high SNR, which is normally undersampled by the detector with a physical pixel size of 2.2μm. (c) PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1015638108 Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Optical microscope without lenses produces high-resolution 3-D images on a chip Enter Prof. Aydogan Ozcan, associate professor of electrical engineering at UCLA’s Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. Ozcan and his team – notably lead researchers Serhan Isikman and Dr. Waheb Bishara – have created a lens-free chip and image processing algorithm that utilizes optical sensors, holography and digital tomography combination to render high-resolution, high-contrast images while avoiding the limitations of standard lens-based optical microscopy. “The sensor,” Ozcan notes, “is an inexpensive five megapixel CMOS chip, 5MP with a 2.2 micrometer pixel size. It’s almost the same sensor that we have at the back of a Blackberry or iPhone, except that it’s monochrome rather than RGB.”One of the biggest challenges facing the team was reducing noise artifacts resulting from spatial and temporal coherence due to illuminating the sample with lasers – especially at oblique angles. This coherence-induced noise appears as speckling patterns that obscure images of the actual sample structure. The team addressed the issue by replacing laser illumination with partially-coherent light that emanates from a large aperture of ~0.05-0.1mm diameter with a bandwidth of 1-10 nm, finding that recording in-line holograms using partial coherence provided a gating function which allowed the device to filter noise beyond a defined resolution level. Using partially-coherent light provided a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that dramatically improved clarity and legibility of fine structural details. Moreover, the team developed a sample illumination approach that rotates the partially-coherent light source around the sample, rather than requiring the sample platform to be rotated within the illumination field, which is rather inconvenient to achieve practically, especially for large sample volumes. Ozcan comments that, of the many innovations in this lens-free optical tomographic microscope, three are key: partially-coherent illumination with unit-magnification; pixel superresolution to achieve deeply subpixel lateral resolution; and dual-axis tomographic illumination. In their setup, dual-axis illumination is achieved by rotating the light source using a motorized stage; alignment is not sensitive and robustness is maintained. At every illumination angle, a series of subpixel shifted holograms are recorded for implementing pixel superresolution, such that submicron lateral resolution can be achieved even under unit fringe-magnification. “The chip uses dual-axis illumination to mitigate our limited angles of illumination such that a decent axial resolution can be achieved. The spatial frequencies that are collected from each axis is merged together to fill in some gaps in the 3D Fourier spectra of our objects. Moreover,” he adds, “this is the first time that dual-axis illumination has been applied in optical computed tomography schemes.” Explore further More information: — The Ozcan Research Group at UCLA innovate.ee.ucla.edu/– Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip, PNAS Published online before print April 19, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1015638108– Holographic Opto-Fluidic Microscopy, PubMed, doi: 10.1364/OE.18.027499 — Optical microscope without lenses produces high-resolution 3-D images on a chip www.physorg.com/news/2011-04-o … gh-resolution-d.html Citation: Through a Sensor, Holographically (2011, April 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-sensor-holographically.htmllast_img read more

Seethroughwall surveillance with WiFi shown at UCL

first_img More information: Through-the-Wall Sensing of Personnel Using Passive Bistatic WiFi Radar at Standoff Distances, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 50, issue 4, pp. 1218-1226, DOI:10.1109/TGRS.2011.2164411ABSTRACTIn this paper, we investigate the feasibility of uncooperatively and covertly detecting people moving behind walls using passive bistatic WiFi radar at standoff distances. A series of experiments was conducted which involved personnel targets moving inside a building within the coverage area of a WiFi access point. These targets were monitored from outside the building using a 2.4-GHz passive multistatic receiver, and the data were processed offline to yield range and Doppler information. The results presented show the first through-the-wall (TTW) detections of moving personnel using passive WiFi radar. The measured Doppler shifts agree with those predicted by bistatic theory. Further analysis of the data revealed that the system is limited by the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), and not the signal-to-noise ratio. We have also shown that a new interference suppression technique based on the CLEAN algorithm can improve the SIR by approximately 19 dB. These encouraging initial findings demonstrate the potential for using passive WiFi radar as a low-cost TTW detection sensor with widespread applicability.via Popsci, Extremetech This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) — A surveillance device that uses WiFi radio waves has been devised to see through walls to detect, in military and surveillance parlance, moving personnel targets. The device serves as a radar prototype designed by two UK scientists at the University College London (UCL). The scientists devised the radar prototype as a way to track Wi-Fi signals in order to spy through walls. Their device identifies frequency changes to detect the moving objects. An important feature of their work is that since the device itself does not emit radio waves, it cannot be detected; it operates in stealth. © 2012 Phys.org Explore furthercenter_img Researchers develop “rectenna” to convert radio waves to electricity Citation: See-through-wall surveillance with WiFi shown at UCL (2012, August 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-see-through-wall-surveillance-wifi-shown-ucl.html Karl Woodbridge and Kevin Chetty, researchers at University College London, designed their detector to be able to use these signals. Chetty is a lecturer in the Department of Security and Crime Science at University College London; Woodbridge is with the school’s Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. The two demonstrate what is called a “passive radar system” that can see through walls using WiFi signals generated by wireless routers and access points. “Passive” radar systems detect and track objects by processing reflections from “non-cooperative” sources of illumination in the environment, such as commercial broadcast and communications signals.The scientists’ paper, “Through-the-Wall Sensing of Personnel Using Passive Bistatic WiFi Radar at Standoff Distances” coauthored with G.E. Smith, appeared in the April issue of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions. The prototype is about the size of a suitcase and it carries two antennae and signal processing unit, to monitor baseline WiFi frequency in an area for any change that would indicate movement. The device in tests successfully determined a person’s location, speed and direction through a brick wall that was one-foot-thick. See Through The Wall (STTW) technologies are of great interest to law enforcement and military agencies; this particular device has the UK Military of Defense exploring whether it might be used in “urban warfare,” for scanning buildings. Other more benign applications might range from monitoring children to monitoring the elderly. According to Woodbridge, some challenges remain which he and others involved in the research will attempt to resolve. The UCL team hopes to raise system sensitivity so that their system can pick up and detect not only people who are moving but also people who are standing or sitting still. The device, he said, may be made to be sensitive enough to pick up on subtle motions that the ribcage makes in breathing in and out.Wi-Fi radio signals are found in homes worldwide. Strategy Analytics, a market intelligence company, found in its recent study that 439 million households by the end of 2011 worldwide had WiFi network setups, or about 25 percent of all households. The same report predicts that the worldwide number of Wi-Fi households will reach nearly 800 million in 2016, a penetration rate of 42 percent.last_img read more

Small is beautiful Viewing hydrogen atoms with neutron protein crystallography

first_img Research Professor Julian C.-H. Chen discussed the group’s research with Phys.org, first summarizing the main challenges they faced in overcoming the limitations of only X-ray crystallography, visualizing hydrogen atoms a three-dimensional context, determining protonation states of active site residues in enzymes, and establishing the identities and orientation of solvent molecules. “The strength of neutron crystallography lies in its ability to locate hydrogen atoms in macromolecular structures. Hydrogen accounts for one-half of the atoms in any given protein, and help perform all sorts of tasks, from hydrogen bonding to catalysis,” Chen explains. “For X-ray crystallography, locating hydrogen atoms is especially difficult as they possess just one electron, and X-rays are weakly scattered by hydrogen atoms compared to other elements in proteins such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.”Furthermore, hydrogen atoms in protein structures can be quite mobile. “You’re lucky to be able to see them even in the highest resolution structures,” Chen continues. “Neutrons, on the other hand, have the nifty property that deuterium, which can be introduced into reactive sites on the protein through hydrogen/deuterium exchange, scatters neutrons so they are easily located and readily visible in nuclear density maps, even at moderate resolution. So this makes it relatively straightforward to determine protonation states of residues. Similarly, for solvent molecules, D2O, or heavy water, can be introduced into the crystal – and these molecules have an easily identifiable boomerang shape in the nuclear density maps, which makes it possible to orient them.”On addressing these challenges, Chen adds, “We reasoned that if we had the combination of ultrahigh resolution and neutron diffraction data on hydrogen/deuterium-exchanged crystals, we should be able to describe how individual deuterium atoms vibrate – and not only that, but also describe their anisotropic vibrational motion.” (An anisotropic material exhibits different values of a property in different crystallographic directions.) “So that’s exactly what we did for a number of selected deuterium atoms within crambin – a protein that forms the best-ordered macromolecular crystals known. We surmised that crambin crystals would diffract neutrons to ultra-high resolution as well.” (Phys.org)—Creating 3D visualizations of hydrogen atoms in proteins is especially challenging, often requiring their locations to be inferred from those of nearby carbon, nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur atoms stored in protein structure databases. These locations are based on atomic positions in databases of previously solved structures, general chemical knowledge, quantum mechanical calculations, or potential hydrogen bonding interactions. While X-ray crystallography can pinpoint hydrogen atom locations at ultrahigh resolution, in practice only a few such positions are experimentally determined. Recently, however, scientists at the University of Toledo, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron crystallography – a technique that even at lower resolutions can locate individual hydrogen atoms by leveraging scattering properties of the hydrogen isotope deuterium. More information: Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography, PNAS September 4, 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1208341109 Explore further Structure of enzyme against chemical warfare agents determined Copyright 2012 Phys.org All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences As Chen points out, crambin is a small protein with a limited number of deuterium atoms. “Especially with the new neutron crystallography instruments under construction or being commissioned, new datasets of similar or higher resolution should be possible with crambin as well as other proteins. We’re of course staying updated on these developments.” Chen adds that some of their findings pertaining to hydrogen/deuterium exchange can also be addressed by other physical methods.Chen also comments on their key findings provide the ability to inventory all hydrogen bonding interactions within the protein and ascertain the categories and suggest strengths of hydrogen bonds in the system; demonstrate the power of ultrahigh resolution neutron diffraction to resolve ambiguous hydrogen bonding networks; and reveal unconventional structural features and interatomic interactions. “You generally only see the oxygen of the water in X-ray structures, keep in mind that the two hydrogens scatter X-rays weakly and are generally invisible.” This means that the hydrogen bonding networks can be ambiguous. “But with neutrons,” Chen continues, “since you get strong scattering from the deuteriums of the D2O, you can orient the hydrogens and figure out the network of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors.”Moreover, says Chen, the researchers also saw some instances of unusual hydrogen/deuterium exchange patterns. “One residue in particular appeared to have hydrogen/deuterium exchange on one of the hydrogens bonded to the alpha carbon. This could be evidence of C-H. . .O hydrogen bonds, which are rather elusive and difficult to observe experimentally although nearly 30 years of mostly computational work have been done on these hydrogen bonds.”In terms of other research and downstream technology might benefit from your findings, Chen stresses that their study demonstrates what can be done with neutron crystallography. “I think that this, and future structures, will give the humble hydrogen atom its due,” Chen concludes. “This will hopefully work its way into computational algorithms that address protein-ligand and protein-drug interactions. This work may also lead in the long run to more accurate, higher quality macromolecular structures.” (A) Structure of crambin, with main chain amide hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange pattern ranging from blue (unexchanged) to red (fully exchanged). (B) Side chains of residues R10, N14, N46, and T2 are depicted with anisotropic ellipsoids. D atoms are shown in green, with hydrogen bonds indicated. Copyright © PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1208341109 Citation: Small is beautiful: Viewing hydrogen atoms with neutron protein crystallography (2012, September 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-09-small-beautiful-viewing-hydrogen-atoms.htmllast_img read more

Jazzing it up

first_imgIt is the time when all the jazz lovers in the city can head on to enjoy the best of jazz music as Cocktails and Dreams Speakeasy celebrates the international Jazz Day.Keeping up with its tradition of bringing the best in music and cocktails to its customers,  it lines up three great bands- Drift The Trio, Grey Area and Takatrio performing Jazz live. 30 April is honoured as the International Jazz Day by UNESCO. This day is marked out to celebrates the historical, cultural, and educational contribution of this popular genre of music. It aims to spread international awareness about this unique musical style; and to promote the cultural, and social values that Jazz stands for.Honouring this sentiment, Cocktails and Dreams Speakeasy presents a night dedicated to Jazz.When: 30 AprilWhere: SCO 23, Behind Galaxy Hotel, Sector 15, Gurgaonlast_img read more

Of rainbows and fables stones and gravels

first_imgCelebrating some of the best children’s flavors with a distinct palate on stage, every autumn National School of Drama (NSD) organizes a festival of theatre for children. This year, the 12th edition of Jashnebachpan, will make sure that children are treated to the best through theatre for children. Jashnebachpan 2014 will be inaugurated by Shripad Yasso Naik, Minister of Tourism and Culture on Sunday, 2 November at Abhimanch in New Delhi Campus of National School of Drama. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Jashnebachpan 2014 will be featuring various performances in 8 languages – Assamese, Bengali, English, Kannada, Marathi, Malayalam, Manipuri, Hindi and 1 non-verbal from 14 States/Union Territories at the National School of Drama. Many a plays of TIE (Theatre in Education Co.) have also become a part of the same fantasy world for children.T.I.E. Co has staged over 1200 shows, 350 workshops catering to more than 11 lakhs children apart from college students, teachers, parents and theatre lovers across the world with their plays celebrates its glorious 25 years. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIt has also captured hearts in Poland, China, Philippines and Japan. Prof. Waman Kendre, NSD Director said, ‘It is a matter of pleasure for us that T.I.E. Co is about to complete 25 years. India has very few organisations that work for children’s theatre and T.I.E. Co works with unmatched commitment and passion towards it.”We believe that theatre changes life, so this year we have also involved children from under privilege backgrounds and dropouts in Jashnebachpan. The idea is make theatre for everyone. Many NGOs have also participated in our initiative,’ he added.This year NSD has invited the participation of Zonal Cultural Centers to get involved and extend encouragement and support to the various participating groups. T.I.E Co is also organizing its first ever three-day seminar, titled, Theatre for children; who’s need is it? from 12th to 14th November will have known theatre personalities like Rudraprasad Sengupta, Feizal Alkazi, Kanchan Sontakke, Bansi Kaul and many more.Abdul Latif Khatana, T.I.E Co. Chief said, ’25 years ago T.I.E. Co was a new concept. We believe that theatre isn’t just for one to watch. It is a medium to learn and experience. It has been observed that people involved in theatre turn out to be better citizens.’Ratan Thiyam, Chairperson NSD Society, reiterates, ‘By organizing theatre for children we are preparing a generation to be more creative, responsible and sensitive to their environment. It has also introduced motivational aspects in creativity in Indian education.’Where : National School of DramaWhen :  3-14 Novemberlast_img read more