Football Viewers’ Guide: FCS Playoffs 2nd Round

first_imgSouth Dakota at Sam Houston State, Saturday, 2 p.m. CT, ESPN3National TV:ESPN College ExtraDirecTV 793Online:ESPN3http://WatchESPN.comWatchESPN and ESPN appsTalent:David Saltzman, play-by-playDustin Fox, analyst FRISCO, Texas – Only 16 teams remain in the NCAA FCS tournament, with Sam Houston State and Central Arkansas beginning their playoff runs this weekend after receiving byes in the opening round. Both teams have home games starting at 2 o’clock Saturday afternoon. Coverage will be available on ESPN3 and ESPN College Extra. New Hampshire at Central Arkansas, Saturday, 2 p.m. CT, ESPN3National TV:ESPN College ExtraDirecTV 792Online:ESPN3http://WatchESPN.comWatchESPN and ESPN appsTalent:Mike Watts, play-by-playTyoka Jackson, analystlast_img

Multiracial Beauty

first_imgLast month, rapper Kanye West posted a controversial casting call for his clothing line, Yeezy, mandating “multiracial women only.” Many objected, arguing that West had insulted darker-skinned black women.But Kanye was only adhering to something fairly common in a society that still operates under a racial hierarchy: the belief that multiracial people are more attractive, what sociologist Jennifer Sims has termed the “biracial beauty stereotype.”Attractiveness may seem like a trite and shallow topic for an academic to study or even care about. But as a sociologist who specializes in inequality, I believe there’s a great deal to unpack, particularly when exploring how attractiveness might lead to biases in the same way race and gender do.It’s not just important to point out who we find attractive; just as important is why we find them attractive. I’ve been especially interested in how racial self-identification influences these perceptions, exploring this topic in a recent study.The gift of beautyA wide variety of research has demonstrated that how attractive you’re perceived to be can dramatically shape your life. For example, people who are seen as more attractive earn more money, while in the classroom, teachers assume attractive people are more capable students.In addition, a 2016 study by sociologist Shawn Bauldry found that more attractive people were much more likely to achieve social mobility. And as with many other aspects of American society, attractiveness has a racial element, with black people on the bottom – seen as the least attractive – and white people perceived as most attractive.But racialized attractiveness doesn’t operate in a strict dichotomy, with all black people automatically deemed uniformly unattractive.Instead, it’s more of a spectrum. Studies have shown that black people who look more stereotypically black (darker skin, bigger lips, wider noses) tend to be perceived as less attractive than those who look less stereotypically black (lighter skin, thin lips, straight hair).This idea undergirds the biracial beauty stereotype, particularly for black people. The prevailing belief is that multiracial people will have fewer of the physical features that make black people appear unattractive. In other words, in the context of beauty, multiracial means “more white” or “less black.”These sentiments are historically rooted and build on a long history of racial stratification and color segmentation facilitated by the media, social organizations and other cultural forces. It all culminates in a preference for whiteness that privileges black people who appear more like white people.Digging deeperIn a study I published in The Review of Black Political Economy, I wanted to take this idea a step further. I wondered: What if people who identified as black simply said they were multiracial? Would people, in turn, tend to rate them as more attractive by virtue of how they self-identified?In other words, is the simple suggestion that a person is not just black but black “plus something else” so powerful that others will think those people are more attractive irrespective of how they actually look?Research already conducted by sociologist Siohban Brooks and cultural anthropologist Katherine Frank hinted this would be the case. In separate studies of American strip club patrons and workers, they found that female exotic dancers would tell customers they were multiracial as a way to make more money. They’d do this regardless of whether they actually identified this way, often fabricating a genealogy (“one-quarter Asian, one-quarter Native American, half black”) instead of just saying they were black.For my investigation, I relied on regression analysis and a nationally representative survey, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, which was originally conducted to track the social outcomes of adolescents through young adulthood.A diverse team of trained interviewers collected data on 3,200 black people. The interviewers recorded, among much other information, the skin tone of the respondent on a scale of one to five, hair color, eye color, race and how attractive they perceived the person on a scale from one to five.The interviewers recorded their information, including attractiveness, about each respondent at the end of each interview – but only after they’d learned the respondent’s racial identification.I tested whether multiracial black people were rated more attractive than monoracial black people even when accounting for racialized physical features: skin tone, hair color and eye color.They were. Multiracial identification positively predicted attractiveness regardless of other physical features. In fact, it was a stronger predictor of attractiveness than skin tone – an astonishing finding considering the growing amount of research demonstrating the strong negative effect of skin tone on social outcomes.Not only were people who identified as multiracial rated as more attractive on average, but even the multiracial people with the darkest skin tones were rated as more attractive than the monoracial black people with lighter skin tones. In essence, this combination of results means that simply identifying as multiracial may make a black person appear more attractive to others, regardless of how he or she actually looks.The power of simple self-identificationThis complicates both our idea of race and our idea of attractiveness.Research already suggests that perceived attractiveness influences people’s perception of characteristics completely unrelated to physical appearance. (For example, people who are perceived as more attractive are also thought to be happier and more competent.)As far as race is concerned, it adds to our understanding of how knowing someone’s racial identification can have astonishing cognitive effects.Famously, MacArthur Fellow and social psychologist Jennifer Richeson found that the stress of interracial interactions may be so great that it temporarily decreases the memory and reasoning ability of some white people as they struggle to not be perceived as racist. Conversely, she found a similar phenomenon at play for black people as they try to avoid conforming to racist stereotypes. And more recently, psychologists Adam Waytz, Kelly Marie Hoffman and Sophie Trawalter report that white people, in a display of dehumanization, generally think of black people as superhuman, possessing abnormal strength, speed and pain tolerance.The relationship between racial identification and attractiveness may operate similarly. It doesn’t matter what we see. The mere suggestion of a person’s blackness creates a cognitive hiccup that leads a sweeping judgment that influences how attractive they seem.This, in turn, may influence how happy, competent and successful they appear – and, in the end, are.Robert L. Reece is a Ph.D. Candidate in Sociology at Duke University.Reprinted from The Conversation.  Related Itemslast_img read more

Proposal Aims to Help Homeowners Build Equity

first_img BEAM Act Congressman Tim Ryan Home Equity Principal 2016-06-27 Seth Welborn June 27, 2016 626 Views Share in Daily Dose, Featured, Newscenter_img Proposal Aims to Help Homeowners Build Equity Principal reduction is one way to give underwater and delinquent homeowners relief. An alternative proposal to straight up principal reduction is to give homeowners back a percentage of the money they put toward their principal, thus preventing them from ever becoming underwater or delinquent in the first place.That is what Congressman Tim Ryan (D-Ohio) is aiming for with his latest proposal, the Building Equity for the American Middle-Class (BEAM) Act. Ryan’s bill would create a 50 percent refundable tax credit of up to $1,000 on additional principal payments homeowners make aside from their required monthly payments.The goal of the BEAM Act is to help homeowners build equity (thus creating wealth), reduce debt, and pay off mortgages more quickly. A homeowner who buys a $200,000 home and puts 10 percent down would save about $20,000 over the life of the mortgage and pay off their loan about two and a half years early, according to Ryan.“Owning a home is an integral part of the American Dream,” Ryan said. “But this ‘Dream’ should be attainable for every hardworking American. This legislation will help millions pay down their mortgages, making it easier for them to make ends meet and giving them additional financial flexibility to spend their hard earned money on what matters the most—their families.”Washington, D.C.-based think tank Third Way pointed out in a recent commentary that another housing bubble is inevitable because federal tax policy still encourages high debt levels even though post-crisis regulation has prevented the type of risky lending that led to the housing crash. Third Way fellow Paul LaPointe and SVP Jim Kessler noted in the commentary that years after the recession, underwater mortgages continue to lock homeowners into negative equity, making it difficult for them to move or build any wealth. Many of these homeowners are required to hold private mortgage insurance, which makes it even tougher to get back into positive equity.“The BEAM Act could prevent millions of Americans from losing their homes the next time disaster strikes.”Third Way“The BEAM Act could prevent millions of Americans from losing their homes the next time disaster strikes,” LaPointe and Kessler wrote. “Only families with middle class or modest incomes would be eligible, so it would help those most at risk in a housing downturn. It would incentivize banks to issue a new kind of mortgage that encourages paying down principal more quickly—a welcome change to a market that has pushed debt. It would bring peace of mind and added security to homeowners as they build equity in their homes.”Alanna McCargo, Co-Director of the Urban Institute’s Housing Finance Policy Center (HFPC), said she believes that the BEAM Act has good intentions toward helping existing homeowners pay their principal.“Housing has long been seen as a key source of wealth building for those who can buy a home,” McCargo said. “The housing crisis showed us the ugly side of the coin if borrowers don’t have sufficient equity in their home or are unable to tap it when their incomes diminish. This bill may be helpful to some borrowers in building equity faster in the long term.”McCargo noted that the HFPC plans to release an in-depth study in mid-July on how housing wealth is translating to middle-income borrowers.“Our study shows that, in general, younger age cohorts and those in lower-cost areas have relatively less equity in their homes,”  she said. “If the BEAM Act helped them build equity more quickly, they might have greater financial stability and a larger nest egg for the future. However, it is important to note that given that historically low interest rates on mortgages now and for the foreseeable future, paying principal early on a higher interest rate debt may be the better bet when it comes to the overall economic benefit to borrowers.”last_img read more