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Former Agriculture Minister Toweh Dies

first_imgThe death is announced of former Agriculture Minister Scott Gblorzuo Toweh, which sad event occurred over the weekend in the United States of America, following a period of illness.Mr. Toweh served as Minister of Agriculture during the regime of Head of State Samuel K. Doe. Mr. Toweh was a staunch member of the defunct Liberia Action Party (LAP), one of the two leading political parties that participated in the 1985 presidential and general elections.  Those elections were widely believed to have been won by LAP and its standard bearer, Jackson Fiah Doe of Nimba County, but they were horribly rigged by Samuel Doe and his Elections Commissioner Emmet Harmon, giving the victory to Samuel K. Doe and his National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL).In 2005, Scott Toweh attempted to run as a presidential candidate during that year’s presidential and general elections, the first since the end of the civil war, on the ticket of the National Democratic party of Liberia (NDPL). But the party instead chose as its standard bearer Counselor Winston Tubman, who lost in the first round to George Oppong Weah of the Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf’s Unity Party.  It was in the run-off that Ellen emerged as the winner, becoming Africa’s first elected woman President.   Prior to becoming a member of the NDPL, the late Toweh was rumored to have been tipped by some top officials of the Unity Party (UP) to become the running mate of Madam Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.  But the UP standard bearer instead chose Lofa County’s Joseph N. Boakai, who became the Vice President.S. Gblorzuo Toweh was a distinguished personality on the Liberian political scene.  He served Liberia in several capacities, including lower-level positions, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Posts and Telecommunications, Deputy Minister of Posts and Telecommunications, Deputy Minister of Local Government, Rural Development and Urban Reconstruction.  He was also appointed Assistant Minister of Local Government, Rural Development and Urban Reconstruction, and Director of Cooperatives in the Ministry of Agriculture.He established good relations with foreign governments and as a result Government received grants from some foreign governments, including the KR2 (Kennedy Round – Two) program from the Japanese Government; support programs from the South Korean government; and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The German Government, through its international development agency—GTZ and the Korad Adenauer Foundation, extended the Nimba Rural Development Project for a total of US$8 million at the rate of US$2 million per year for four consecutive years.For four years, Dr. Toweh served as a member of the Executive Council of the FAO, where food and agricultural policies of member countries were addressed.At the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Scott also established a very good working relationship with foreign governments. As a result of these relationships, the U.S. Government gave Liberia a US$300,000 grant to erect two regional post offices in Nimba and Grand Gedeh counties, and to purchase postal equipment, including 15 postal trucks for mail delivery purposes. He also obtained scholarships from Brazil, Great Britain, Germany, Switzerland and Norway for staff development in postal management. Mr. Toweh obtained a Master of Science degree in Agriculture from North Carolina State University at Raleigh, North Carolina, USA; a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina; a Diploma in Agricultural Mechanics from ORT NATHANIEL, Israel, and a high school diploma from the Booker Washington Institute (BWI), Kakata, Liberia.Scott Gblorzuo Toweh was born in Toweh Town, Nimba County, Liberia, to the union of Paramount Chief Gblorzuo and Madame Mahtee Toweh. He was married to Kaymah Vaye Toweh of Tappita, Nimba County on March 16, 1974, a marriage that lasted until his death.He was the father of six children.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

EXCLUSIVE: BOUNDARY ROW – GAELS VOW TO FIGHT EUNAN’S

first_imgLETTERKENNY Gaels have vowed to fight on in their bid to split Letterkenny into two different catchment areas.The club claimed it was being prevented from appealing a decision made by the Ulster GAA which accepted that there had been a prior agreement between it and St Eunan’s not to divide boundaries.The County Committee had backed the Gaels by 40 votes to 34 at a previous ruling. This was overturned on appeal. “C.L.G. Gaeil Leitir Ceannainn are disappointed and concerned at recent events which have sought to deny both our Club and County Committee the right of Appeal against the recent Decision of the Hearings Committee of the Ulster Council in respect of the ongoing dispute on Club Boundaries,” said the club in a statement.“Our Club will continue to pursue all avenues within the Official Guide of the GAA in order to ensure that the decision of County Committee on this dispute is upheld and that equality of treatment is accorded to our Club in the related process.”The decision of the Gaels will be backed by its members who insist they cannot grow without exclusive access to players in the parish of Aughaninshin part of the town declared as their club’s catchment area.However St Eunan’s members will be wary that the Gaels have not accepted the decision of the Ulster Council. Tonight one Eunan’s source said: “This is disappointing. We’d rather work with the Gaels to promote gaelic games in Letterkenny. We thought they would have accepted the ruling of the Ulster Council.”© 2011 donegaldaily.com, all Rights ReservedThe copying, republication or redistribution of donegaldaily.com Content, including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited by law.Follow us on www.twitter.com/donegaldailyFollow us on www.facebook.com/donegaldaily Sell anything on www.donegaldailyclassifieds.comEXCLUSIVE: BOUNDARY ROW – GAELS VOW TO FIGHT EUNAN’S was last modified: December 6th, 2011 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:BOUNDARY DISPUTELetterkenny GaelsSt Eunan’s GAA clublast_img read more

Motorists caught speeding up to 160km/hr outside Letterkenny

first_imgGardaí have made a number of speeding detections this week on one of the busiest roads into Letterkenny.Drivers were caught on the dual carriageway travelling at speeds well over the 100km/hr limit.One driver was detected doing 160 km/hr, while another was travelling at 154km/hr. Other motorists were over the limit at 128 km/hr and 130 km/hr.The cases were shared online by the Letterkenny Road Policing Unit, who had this warning for those who break the speed limit: “You not only risk getting a fine or a Court appearance but you put yourself and others at risk on the road each time you break the speed limit!”Gardaí also carried out several tyre checkpoints in the Letterkenny District on Tuesday. Some vehicles were found to have badly worn tyres, with cautions were administered to some whilst others were issued with a fine.Gardaí said: “Please check your tyres regularly and ensure that the tread depth is not below 1.6mm, the minimum legal tread depth. It is recommended that you change your tyres when the tread depth falls below 3mm.“Not having a proper grip on your tyres could cause your vehicle to lose control and it greatly reduces your chance of stopping on time should an unexpected obstacle appear in your path whilst driving!”Motorists caught speeding up to 160km/hr outside Letterkenny was last modified: September 9th, 2019 by Rachel McLaughlinShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Gardaroad safetyROADSlast_img read more

Sharks’ Joe Thornton on Joe Pavelski, Logan Couture, and what took so long for him to sign

first_imgSAN JOSE — Standing in front of his familiar stall inside the Sharks’ dressing room at their practice facility, Joe Thornton was asked why it took so long for him to reach the one-year, $2 million deal he signed with the team Friday.Thornton. who turned 40 in July, joked that general manager Doug Wilson originally sent him the same eight-year, $92-million contract that defenseman Erik Karlsson got this summer.“I said, ‘Ah, Doug, I don’t want to be greedy. I don’t want to take that right now. …last_img

Antibiotic Resistance Is Shared, Not Evolved

first_imgGrowing evidence undermines commonly-cited examples of evolution happening right before our eyes.It’s becoming increasingly clear that organisms are in the business of preserving their information, not monkeying with it. Phys.org presented new work on “A catalog of DNA replication proteins,” describing a whopping 593 proteins that are involved in replicating DNA to make sure the copies are accurate.Maintenance of genome integrity—and prevention of diseases such as cancer—requires complete and faithful replication of the genome every cell division cycle.Published March 1, 2019Evolutionists glibly present genes as playthings of some mystical Tinkerer that cobbles things together to see what comes up. One example they have often cited is the “evolution of antibiotic resistance.” In creation-evolution debates, some evolutionists have used the “evolution of antibiotic resistance” as prime evidence for evolution happening right before our eyes. The argument usually goes that Darwinism has no problem inventing new functions from scratch. Actually, as Michael Behe showed in Darwin Devolves, such “evolution” involves breaking or blunting genes, like desperate sailors tossing things overboard to keep from sinking in a storm.Integrity with GenerosityNow, we are finding more and more that cells not only preserve their own information, but share information that can help other members of the species – or even members of other species – survive a crisis. That’s not evolution the way Darwin described it. It’s like sharing books with friends instead of writing new books.This microbe is spreading antibiotic resistance to other bacteria  (The Conversation). Most people have heard that antibiotic resistance is a growing threat, compromising our most valuable medicines for preventing infection. Sali Morris and James Horton recall the rise of a superbug called MRSA, a bacterium resistant to all our best antibiotics. Doctors have run out of options to defeat this threat, and are working feverishly to keep it from showing up in hospitals. Where did it come from?Scientists would later uncover that rather than acquiring resistance through a simple mutation, the MRSA had instead been gifted a huge chunk of new DNA. Within this string of donated genetic code were the instructions for proteins that would keep the bacteria safe from the destructive work of the antibiotic. MRSA had been dealt a winning hand, but where had this DNA come from?Morris and Horton say that a member of our own gut microbiota, Enterococcus faecalis, already has genes for antibiotic resistance. It only becomes a problem when all the other gut bacteria are swept away by antibiotics. Then, E. faecalis proliferates, because it is “intrinsically equipped with an arsenal of natural resistance mechanisms within its DNA, often allowing it to survive.” Not only that, it shares its knowledge!When humans come together we often exchange ideas through language. But when bacteria come together they can exchange information through DNA-encoded instructions. This is known as horizontal gene transfer, where copies of DNA move from one cell to another. Unfortunately, E. faecalis and its superbug compatriots have all the best information to share, information that allows them to survive antibiotics.Listeria bacteria under the microscope.These “nightmare bacteria” that resist all the antibiotics we have, an article on Science Daily says, are costing a fortune in efforts to fight. Doctors see a “chilling commentary” on the future of antibiotics. Perhaps the problem was that nobody understood the genetics of assumed evolutionary processes at the time penicillin was discovered in 1928. Antibiotics were viewed as “magic bullets” that fungi had evolved that would always neutralize infection. Now, seeing the bigger ecological picture, we’re watching sophisticated DNA-controlled machinery that can move between organisms, maintaining homeostasis in natural conditions. Hospitals are very un-natural environments where that DNA can get out of control, multiply, and cause harm.Secretion Systems: Weapons, or Sharing Tools?The cholera bacterium can steal up to 150 genes in one go (Science Daily). Some germs don’t only share information; they take it! The cholera bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, uses its Type VI Secretion System (T6SS) – a molecular machine a bit like a spear – to nab DNA from its host. Scientists at the World Health Organization (WHO) observed it hauling in 150,000 base pairs of information.V. cholerae uses its T6SS to compete with other bacteria in its aquatic environment and acquire new genetic material, which the pathogen absorbs and exchanges against some parts of its own genome. This mode of “horizontal gene transfer” leads to rapid evolution and pathogen emergence.They call this “evolution” but it’s more like theft of existing knowledge, like a person stealing books from a library. One of the researchers concludes that this method of sharing information might be very common in bacteria: “It suggests that environmental bacteria might share a common gene pool, which could render their genomes highly flexible and the microbes prone to quick adaption.” Nothing evolved that was not already present.Architecture of the mycobacterial type VII secretion system (Nature). The secretion systems bacteria use to share information can be very sophisticated. One of them, the Type III, has famously been compared to the bacterial flagellum, but is different – and it appeared after the flagellum, evolutionists confess, instead of as a transitional form. In this preprint, scientists share new findings about the Type VII secretion system, which “differs markedly from other known secretion machines.” Its coupling protein “comprises a flexible array of four ATPase domains [i.e., domains that use ATP for energy], which are linked to the membrane through a stalk domain.” Perhaps it’s time to see the broader ecological purpose of these sophisticated mechanisms of information transfer rather than view them only as human pathogens, which they become when out of place in the environment.Conservation: Where’s the Evolution?Bacterial twist to an antiviral defence (Nature News and Views, 8 October 2019). Karen Maxwell, determined to preserve evolution in her story, says “The discovery of an antiviral defence system in bacteria that shares some components with a key antiviral defence pathway in animals provides insight into how this important response might have evolved.” Might have? Maybe it didn’t evolve. Maybe scientists have found another mechanism for information sharing.Humans face a daily threat of infection by harmful viruses. To repel them, our immune system mounts an immediate response following invasion that depends on its ability to recognize general characteristics indicating that viruses are foreign entities. This type of reaction, generated by an ancient branch of the immune system known as innate immunity, occurs in all plants and animals. Many genes involved in innate immune responses are evolutionarily conserved and encode proteins that are used for defence purposes in different species. Writing in Nature, Cohen et al. report that some bacterial species fight viral infections by using an innate immune mechanism that is related to one of the central components of innate immunity in animals called the cGAS–STING pathway. Their findings reveal that this crucial antiviral defence system in animals might have its evolutionary roots in bacteria.Notice that no evolution really occurred, because the system is “evolutionarily conserved” [see Sophoxymoronia] between very different organisms. Her story, built on the Stuff Happens Law, implies that things evolve except when they don’t. Winston Ewert’s Dependency Graph Model, based on intelligent design concepts (see ENV), explains why a designed system would re-use software modules in different organisms.It’s a Gas! Communication NetworksPlants alert neighbors to threats using common ‘language’ (Science Daily). Here’s another amazing method of information sharing, this time between plants in the forest. Rather than sharing DNA via horizontal gene transfer, plants share information through chemical messages called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cornell scientists studied this method of information transfer in goldenrods in a northeastern ecosystem.The big finding is what Kessler calls “open-channel communication.” When plants are under attack, their smells — carried by VOCs — become more similar.“So, they kind of converge on the same language, or the same warning signs, to share the information freely,” Kessler said. “The exchange of information becomes independent of how closely related the plant is to its neighbor.”It’s as if the whole community works together for mutual benefit. This picture is very different from Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” mentality. Plants in a forest of different species would not be able to use this information unless they had (1) the genetic systems to create the VOC molecules on one end, and (3) the genetic systems to understand their meaning on the other end. Such a system of communication makes sense if designed with foresight, as Dr Marcos Eberlin has argued in his book, Foresight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose.Dr Eberlin, a world-class Brazilian scientist, can be heard explaining his premise with examples on several episodes of the ID the Future podcast. He has hit on a good way to explain ID concepts in ways people can “get” easily, and has many examples in the podcasts and in the book. Remember that Darwinism has NO foresight at all. (Visited 477 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

World Cup traffic control plan in place

first_imgJohannesburg’s roads have become evenbusier. Gauteng spokesperson Thabo Masebe at amedia briefing in Sandton. Metro police are on high alert.(Images: Bongani Nkosi)MEDIA CONTACTS• Thabo MasebeGauteng Provincial GovernmentSpokesperson+27 82 410 8087RELATED ARTICLES• Top safety plan for World Cup• Gautrain rolls out this week• Transport on track for World Cup• SA gets tough on traffic crimeBongani NkosiThe 2010 Fifa World Cup has almost brought Johannesburg’s traffic to a standstill, an indication of the multitude of fans of the beautiful game that are in the city.On match day in the host city, capital of Gauteng province, main roads got congested as fans flock to its two magnificent stadiums, Soccer City and Ellis Park.It was an even worse scenario on 11 June, when the tournament kicked off at Soweto’s Soccer City. The Gauteng provincial government admits that traffic management was not at its best; the chief cause was the presence of private cars in the vicinity of the stadium.“The highways were congested… people were stuck in traffic,” said Thabo Masebe, the province’s spokesperson. “Traffic is of great concern to us.”With congestion starting from central business areas such as Braamfontein, people struggled to make their way south of the city, even hours before the opening ceremony began.“What we saw last Friday would not make anyone happy. We are not happy, Fifa and the LOC are not happy,” Masebe said.“There’s no way you can have thousands of cars going to Soccer City.”Besides staging the opening match, the world-famous city will host the final. It’s already hosted a match featuring the thrilling Brazil, which saw the theatrics of Robinho leading the South Americans to a 2-1 thrashing of North Korea.The problem, Masebe noted, is that football fans want to drive to the venues, instead of using public transport. Gauteng’s plan is that fans should use the transport laid on for fans, such as public buses, trains and minibus taxis.Public transport provided for the duration of the World Cup in the province is adequate and reliable enough to carry the scores of fans, said Masebe. “We’ve provided enough public transport, and we encourage fans to use it.”Johannesburg City’s rapid transit Rea Vaya buses are one option, others are Metrorail trains or Metro buses. Pretoria, staging matches at Loftus Stadium, also provides public transport.While Rea Vaya charges a minimum fee of R6 (US$0.79) per trip to both Ellis Park and Soccer City, trains provide free shuttle for fans with match tickets. Metro buses ferry fans from Park and Ride facilities in different parts of the city, for free.“There’s no way you can miss a train going to the stadium,” Masebe said.Gauteng’s new planThe provincial government has decided that it will close off certain roads to private cars in the city centre and main routes leading to the stadium. The roads will be closed and manned by traffic officials four hours before a game kicks off.Road closures will not inconvenience motorists when there are no matches. “On other days the roads will be open,” said Masebe.The Soweto Highway and Nasrec Road, main routes leading to Soccer City, will always be closed to the public on match day.Only private vehicles carrying VIPs, Fifa officials, and players, and other accredited cars will be allowed entry into the roads.“If [traffic police] find a car where it’s not supposed to be, they will impound it and you would have to pay a fee,” said Masebe.The province’s aim is to ensure free flow of traffic in both Johannesburg and Pretoria throughout the tournament. “Nobody should even think about traffic. It must run smoothly… We want to ease the flow of traffic,” Masebe said.“It’s all going well”There have been no major incidents of crime reported in Gauteng, contrary to speculation before the World Cup started.Police maintain a high visibility in many areas, especially those around high-volume venues like stadiums and public viewing areas. The men in blue have also taken control of all security in Soccer City and Ellis Park.“We have sufficient capacity to provide security,” said Masebe. “The police have enough capacity to deal with any situation.”last_img read more

Nene walks a tightrope

first_imgThe budget will be a balancing act. Reining in spending and raising taxes will usher in a few years of pain – not very heavy pain, but unavoidable pain – and the finance minister will need to find a way to spread it among as many groups as possible without causing anger or resentment. Finance Minister Nhlanhla Nene will reveal his first ever budget on Wednesday 25 February, 2015. (Image: Department of Communications) • African Union: Africa losing billions from fraud and tax avoidance • South Africa is a leader in many fields • Africa dismantling trade barriers • Skills, innovation part of South Africa’s story • Infographic: The State of the Nation, in numbers Sulaiman PhilipTaxes will go up; so will the fuel levy and so-called sin taxes. These are all expected, but as Minister Nhlanhla Nene delivers his first budget on 25 February, the biggest questions waiting to be answered are policy issues, especially how the fiscus will balance the need for economic growth with its responsibility to the electorate.In October 2014, delivering his first Medium Term Budget Policy Statement, or mini budget, Nene outlined a three-point plan he branded a decisive strategy for fiscal change. As the economy slowed, the country’s current account debt – a major indicator for ratings agencies judging the health of an economy – increased. Nene argued then that the country was at a crossroads economically and said “fiscal consolidation can no longer be postponed”.Tax revenues collection increased in 2014 but the fiscus still needs to find an extra R12-billion to fund government programmes and pay down the country’s sovereign debt. So an increase in taxes is inevitable this time around. Where will the money be found is the biggest question: will he target top earners or an already squeezed middle class?Short on options, in his mini budget Nene laid out plans to cut government expenditure by R25-billion over two years while increasing tax revenue by R27-billion over the same period. He planned to cut the government spending ceiling as well in an effort to build a foundation of sustainable public finance and cut government debt.Sound public finances matter because the government uses fiscal policy to transform society. Theoretically, classical government functions – providing public services to improve social cohesion and redistribution of opportunity – are conducive to higher long-term economic growth and improved social cohesion. Finance Minister Nhlanhla Nene will need to find a way to spread the pain among as many groups as possible without causing anger or resentment. (Image: GCIS) Public investmentPublic investment does help to stimulate economic growth in the short term, and the government has announced large public programmes. But this is not sustainable growth; historically those same programmes underpinned by structural reforms in government spending have proven to be successful.In a speech on innovation and competitiveness in July 2014, he touched on similar themes: sluggish growth in South Africa can be improved through expanded trade with Africa; bold changes can help South Africa reduce unemployment and poverty, increase competitiveness and spur innovation. “The business before us now relates to the prioritisation of options and working through some tough trade-offs,” he said.The problem for Nene is that the kind of fiscal consolidation he is planning requires better revenue collection mechanisms – an effective South African Revenue Services – and a wider tax base. The minister set himself a budget deficit target of 4.1% and given the almost 8% increase in collected revenue, it is an achievable goal.Nene’s budget will be a balancing act; he will need to find a way to spread the pain among as many groups as possible without causing anger or resentment. Reining in spending and raising taxes will usher in a few years of pain, but he will ask South Africans to look at it as a call to action. “Not very bad, not very heavy pain, but it [is] unavoidable to narrow the budget deficit, stabilise debt and begin to rebuild fiscal space.” Infrastructure needsIn the 2014/2015 budget the Treasury committed to spending R847-billion over three years on infrastructure programmes. The government’s own figures suggest that this is a fraction of the R3-trillion in infrastructure investment that South Africa needs.That is another tightrope Nene needs to walk as he plans the economic direction for the next few years. Government spending does spur economic growth; empirical evidence suggests, though, that how government money is spent matters. For investors what matters is spending that enforces the rule of law and protects property rights. For them, spending on institutions that protect these rights is as productive as money spent on infrastructure programmes.South Africa needs investment, and Nene needs to not treat his tax base as a trough. He has one advantage. States remain solvent as long as their income streams cover their obligations, as long as they fulfil what economists call present value budget constraint, a level the minister can set.last_img read more

Stair Design Basics

first_img Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details. Start Free Trial Already a member? Log in Stair design requires attention to all of the usual rules of residential design. Stairs should be graceful, useful, and comfortable. In addition, stairs must also be safe. Clearly, safety is more important for stair design than for most design issues (for example, ceiling height or window orientation).Once you understand the basic principles of stair design, you’ll probably notice that lots of stairs lack a graspable handrail, or have inconsistent riser heights, or are dimly lit. Examples of flawed stairs are unfortunately common. Why should green builders care? Is stair design a green issue? Perhaps. There are at least two ways that stair safety principles are in mild conflict with green construction principles:I don’t want to belabor these two points, because the conflicts are obviously minor. Safety clearly trumps building size targets or energy use targets. Code requirements There are lots of good online documents on code requirements for stairs; for example: Stair safety basics I won’t try to recreate these guides here. Instead, I’ll focus on the most common stair safety issues.Designers and builders need to get these important details right: The 7-11 controversy Jake Pauls, a safety consultant from Silver Springs, Maryland, has carved out a niche as one of the nation’s most vociferous advocates for stair safety. He has been waging a tireless campaign is favor of the 7-11 stair for more than 30 years. Pauls argues that 7-11 stairs result in lower injury rates than steeper stairs.Pauls (and other 7-11 advocates) won an early victory in 1991, when BOCA, one of the model code organizations that pre-dated the establishment of the International Code Council, voted for a code change establishing a maximum stair riser height of 7 inches and a minimum stair tread width… center_img This article is only available to GBA Prime Memberslast_img read more

Smokin’ Hot Tips for Autodesk Smoke

first_img5. Change the frame rate of the resolutions you import most often as frame sequences to the project frame rate you use most often (24,25, 30).  Example: Change the 24 to 30 in the 1920 1080 line and that resolution will now default to 30 (29.97) fps for frame sequences.NOTE:  If  you put 0 (zero) as the frame rate in the file it will default to the project frame rate automatically. 6. Save the file and restart Smoke to refresh the data. In the Media Hub you can now import the sequence and it will be the new frame rate.I hope that you find these tips helpful. If you have any questions, feel free to ask in the comments below. Keep checking back to Premiumbeat for more Autodesk Smoke information! Here are 3 hot Autodesk Smoke tips that will allow you to expand on the workflows to get the most out of the software.Tip #1: Visual Rendering Inside ConnectFXIn previous versions of Smoke, when the tools were module based and separate you could render inside Action and see your composite update frame by frame. This allowed you to catch any keyframe errors or other user mistakes and fix them without having to wait for the entire render to finish.  With ConnectFX, this rendering option isn’t available.  Many users coming from older versions have requested it.However, until it becomes an actual feature, I have a creative workaround. for rendering inside Smoke ConnectFX.1. Create a CFX Clip by right clicking on your final node. You can use the CFX Result Node, but if you do, there is a small bug.2.  Once your CFX Clip is created, find it in the Timing display. If you did choose to use the CFX Result Clip, you will need to trim the end of the clip and extend the out point to match the number of frames you need for your timeline clip.3.  Go to the first frame. Select the clip. Press [F1] to view it. Then simply hit Play in the Viewer. Your clip will attempt to play. As it does, it will actually render each frame as it plays.4.  Once the clip is done and rendered you can play it in real-time. If you like the result, you can simply pipe the clip output in to the CFX Result Node and exit.Here’s the catch. Even though this clip is rendered when you exit.. there’s still some rendering to be done.  This honestly makes no sense and something I intend to point out to Autodesk.  So there is a workaround for the workaround. Copy your rendered CFX Clip from the Sources folder to your library.  Exit CFX, now just use the Replace hotkey [F11] to replace the original timeline CFX with your rendered CFX Clip.  You can still go back and edit it as needed.5.  If you found an error, or wanted to change something, just make the adjustments in the nodes, delete the CFX Clip you made and create a new one.Now you have an option to visually render your ConnectFX clips.Tip #2: Copy Color Correct EffectsOften times you want to apply the same Color Correct effect across clips that all come from the same source.  For example, if you are cutting a 2 camera interview, you make want to apply the same grade to all of the clips of your subject. Here is a quick way to copy color correction effects across clips in Smoke.1.  Add a CC or CW effect to your first clip.2.  Now use the Timeline Search and Filter Tool to find all of the shots in your sequence that come from that same clip or “tape name”.  The tool is accessed from the little Magnifying Icon in the lower right of the timeline.The Search & Filter Tool is really a great way to highlight events in your edit. There are numerous selections you can make from, clip name, timecode, tape name, Cue Marks, and even use it to filter and highlight clips that have effects on them or transitions.3.  The easiest way to input the criteria you want is to press the “Get Information form Current Element” button which will populate the fields with the properties of the currently selected clip, or wherever the positioner is focused.4.  Choose Select on Current Track or All Tracks, whichever makes the most sense for you.5.  Your clips are now highlighted in your timeline.You now have 2 options to copy your CC effect to all of the selected clips:1. Copy your CC Effect into the Media Library before you make your Filter Selection. Then after your clips are highlighted, just drag the effect on to one of the highlighted clips and the effect will be applied to all of them or…2. In the Effects Bar, right clip and Copy the CC Effect. Then right click on a highlighted clip in your timeline and choose Paste Color Correct.If you try and drag and drop the effect from the effects bar, it will deselect your clips in your timeline. So use the saved effect from the Media Library or the copy/paste method. Now you can easily copy effects to multiple like clips in your timeline.Tip #3: Change the Default Frame RateThis tip will help you change the default frame rate for frame sequences that you import in Smoke. By default the frame rate of still sequences often come in at a frame rate that doesn’t match your project settings. The default frame rate is 23.98fps, so if you are in an NTSC or Pal Project, this can create some frustration for you.  It is possible to change the frame rate via the UI in the Media Hub, but you often need to make this adjustment every time, and that’s annoying to the user.Here is why this happens.When a frame sequence is imported via the Media Hub, it will look at the header information for the file and read the frame rate. But some, if not many, frame sequences don’t contain header information. .Jpg, .Tiff, .Tga. for example don’t have the ability to specify frame rate. Sometimes DPX is detected wrong. So these frames get imported not at the project frame rate, like you would expect, but they default to a little known file in the Smoke configs. This file is the Legacy.res.cfg file in /usr/discreet/cfg. In the MediaHub Metadata Tab it will tell you if it’s getting the info from this file.If the frame sequence resolution isn’t detected in the header, it will check it against this file. If it isn’t found in the file it will then default to the project setting.If you work in consistent frame rates like I do. Then you can modify this file to force it to be the framerates your use most. Again this mainly applies to frame sequences imported without existing header information.  Actual clips will still import normally with embeded frame rates.1. Open Finder. Hit Shift+CMD+G.  This will open the Go To Folder Option.2.  Type “/usr/discreet/cfg”  (without quotes). Press Enter.3. You may need to give yourself permissions to edit these files. I would give yourself permissions to the entire /cfg folder.4. Open the Legacy.res.cfg file in a text editor.last_img read more